Arduino Projects

# How to make an Arduino LED Cube 4x4x4

## Arduino LED Cube 4x4x4

Hey Guys, welcome back to the Techatronic. In this project, we are going to make an LED cube using Arduino and it’s pretty simple. you just need to follow some simple steps to make it possible. cube is a very interesting project and simplest except the coding part. the coding part of this project a little tough and lengthy. because you have to write the pattern code for 64 LEDs used in this project. there are 16 led in each layer. this project is very attractive. you want to make it after seeing the given video in the last of the post. this is like the LED pattern with Arduino or we may call it is the larger version of the pattern.  so you need to make the pattern only in this project. we are giving you the code and the circuit diagram and you can edit the code with your required pattern.

LED Cube 4x4x4 consists of 4 layers of 14 LEDs. it means in one layer there are 4 lines of 4 LEDs. as you can see in the below diagram. 4 layers mean 64 LEDs. now there is a question in everyone’s mind. to make the different patterns we need to connect every individual led to the individual pin of the Arduino and there only the 22 input-output digital pins available. so there is an idea in our mind that we will use the Arduino digital pins instead of a ground pin. so we can make a combination of patterns. four layers are to be connected to the pin 0 to pin 3. now we can make these pins either high or low. if we turn it low it will react as the end of the Arduino. with the use of little mathematics permutation and combination, we can make the difference in the code. now we have to connect the 1 pin at 1Â  column and the total number of the column is 16 and 1 pin to each layer and the total number of layers are 4 so you need only the 16+4 pins to make this awesome 4x4x4Â  led cube project.

How does it work?

There is 64 LED connected to the Arduino with combination. when led positive terminal to get the HIGH signal from the Arduino and negative terminal get a LOW signal from the Arduino then led will glow. and in the est of the cases, the LED will off. so we can glow individuals led by matrix method. for example, we can glow te 3rd led in the 1st layer in the cube.

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Material required to make LED cube 4x4x4

1. 64 LED
2. Arduino Nano
3. 220-ohm Resistor
4. Zero PCB
5. Copper Wire

circuit diagram arduino led cube

Code for LED cube 4x4x4

int layer[4]={A3,A2,A1,A0}; //initializing and declaring led layers
int column[16]={13,12,11,10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0,A5,A4}; //initializing and declaring led rows
int time = 250;

void setup()
{

for(int i = 0; i<16; i++)
{
pinMode(column[i], OUTPUT); //setting rows to ouput
}

for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
pinMode(layer[i], OUTPUT); //setting layers to output
}

randomSeed(analogRead(10)); //seeding random for random pattern
}

void loop()
{
turnEverythingOff();
flickerOn();
turnEverythingOn();
delay(time);
turnOnAndOffAllByLayerUpAndDownNotTimed();
layerstompUpAndDown();
spiralInAndOut();
turnOnAndOffAllByColumnSideways();
delay(time);
aroundEdgeDown();
turnEverythingOff();
randomflicker();
randomRain();
diagonalRectangle();
goThroughAllLedsOneAtATime();
propeller();
spiralInAndOut();
flickerOff();
turnEverythingOff();
delay(2000);
}

//turn all off
void turnEverythingOff()
{
for(int i = 0; i<16; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
}
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i], 0);
}
}

//turn all on
void turnEverythingOn()
{
for(int i = 0; i<16; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
}
//turning on layers
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i], 1);
}
}
//turn columns off
void turnColumnsOff()
{
for(int i = 0; i<16; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
}
}
//flicker on
void flickerOn()
{
int i = 150;
while(i != 0)
{
turnEverythingOn();
delay(i);
turnEverythingOff();
delay(i);
i-= 5;
}
}
//turn everything on and off by layer up and down NOT TIMED
void turnOnAndOffAllByLayerUpAndDownNotTimed()
{
int x = 75;
for(int i = 5; i != 0; i–)
{
turnEverythingOn();
for(int i = 4; i!=0; i–)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i-1], 0);
delay(x);
}
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i], 0);
delay(x);
}
for(int i = 4; i!=0; i–)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i-1], 1);
delay(x);
}
}
}
//turn everything on and off by column sideways
void turnOnAndOffAllByColumnSideways()
{
int x = 75;
turnEverythingOff();
//turn on layers
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i], 1);
}
for(int y = 0; y<3; y++)
{
//turn on 0-3
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
}
//turn on 4-7
for(int i = 4; i<8; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
}
//turn on 8-11
for(int i = 8; i<12; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
}
//turn on 12-15
for(int i = 12; i<16; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
}
//turn off 0-3
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
//turn off 4-7
for(int i = 4; i<8; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
//turn off 8-11
for(int i = 8; i<12; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
//turn off 12-15
for(int i = 12; i<16; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
//turn on 12-15
for(int i = 12; i<16; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
}
//turn on 8-11
for(int i = 8; i<12; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
}
//turn on 4-7
for(int i = 4; i<8; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
}
//turn on 0-3
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
}
//turn off 12-15
for(int i = 12; i<16; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
//turn off 8-11
for(int i = 8; i<12; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
//turn off 4-7
for(int i = 4; i<8; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
//turn off 0-3
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
}
}
//up and down single layer stomp
void layerstompUpAndDown()
{
int x = 75;
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i], 0);
}
for(int y = 0; y<5; y++)
{
for(int count = 0; count<1; count++)
{
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(layer[i], 0);
}
for(int i = 4; i !=0; i–)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i-1], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(layer[i-1], 0);
}
}
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
for(int i = 4; i!=0; i–)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i-1], 0);
delay(x);
}
}
}
//flicker off
void flickerOff()
{
turnEverythingOn();
for(int i = 0; i!= 150; i+=5)
{
turnEverythingOff();
delay(i+50);
turnEverythingOn();
delay(i);
}
}
//around edge of the cube down
void aroundEdgeDown()
{
for(int x = 200; x != 0; x -=50)
{
turnEverythingOff();
for(int i = 4; i != 0; i–)
{
digitalWrite(layer[i-1], 1);
digitalWrite(column[5], 0);
digitalWrite(column[6], 0);
digitalWrite(column[9], 0);
digitalWrite(column[10], 0);

digitalWrite(column[0], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[0], 1);
digitalWrite(column[4], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[4], 1);
digitalWrite(column[8], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[8], 1);
digitalWrite(column[12], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[12], 1);
digitalWrite(column[13], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[13], 1);
digitalWrite(column[15], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[15], 1);
digitalWrite(column[14], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[14], 1);
digitalWrite(column[11], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[11], 1);
digitalWrite(column[7], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[7], 1);
digitalWrite(column[3], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[3], 1);
digitalWrite(column[2], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[2], 1);
digitalWrite(column[1], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[1], 1);
}
}
}
//random flicker
void randomflicker()
{
turnEverythingOff();
int x = 10;
for(int i = 0; i !=750; i+=2)
{
int randomLayer = random(0,4);
int randomColumn = random(0,16);

digitalWrite(layer[randomLayer], 1);
digitalWrite(column[randomColumn], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(layer[randomLayer], 0);
digitalWrite(column[randomColumn], 1);
delay(x);
}
}
//random rain
void randomRain()
{
turnEverythingOff();
int x = 100;
for(int i = 0; i!=60; i+=2)
{
int randomColumn = random(0,16);
digitalWrite(column[randomColumn], 0);
digitalWrite(layer[0], 1);
delay(x+50);
digitalWrite(layer[0], 0);
digitalWrite(layer[1], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(layer[1], 0);
digitalWrite(layer[2], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(layer[2], 0);
digitalWrite(layer[3], 1);
delay(x+50);
digitalWrite(layer[3], 0);
digitalWrite(column[randomColumn], 1);
}
}
//diagonal rectangle
void diagonalRectangle()
{
int x = 350;
turnEverythingOff();
for(int count = 0; count<5; count++)
{
//top left
for(int i = 0; i<8; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
}
digitalWrite(layer[3], 1);
digitalWrite(layer[2], 1);
delay(x);
turnEverythingOff();
//middle middle
for(int i = 4; i<12; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
}
digitalWrite(layer[1], 1);
digitalWrite(layer[2], 1);
delay(x);
turnEverythingOff();
//bottom right
for(int i = 8; i<16; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
}
digitalWrite(layer[0], 1);
digitalWrite(layer[1], 1);
delay(x);
turnEverythingOff();
//bottom middle
for(int i = 4; i<12; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
}
digitalWrite(layer[0], 1);
digitalWrite(layer[1], 1);
delay(x);
turnEverythingOff();
//bottom left
for(int i = 0; i<8; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
}
digitalWrite(layer[0], 1);
digitalWrite(layer[1], 1);
delay(x);
turnEverythingOff();
//middle middle
for(int i = 4; i<12; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
}
digitalWrite(layer[1], 1);
digitalWrite(layer[2], 1);
delay(x);
turnEverythingOff();
//top right
for(int i = 8; i<16; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
}
digitalWrite(layer[2], 1);
digitalWrite(layer[3], 1);
delay(x);
turnEverythingOff();
//top middle
for(int i = 4; i<12; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
}
digitalWrite(layer[2], 1);
digitalWrite(layer[3], 1);
delay(x);
turnEverythingOff();
}
//top left
for(int i = 0; i<8; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
}
digitalWrite(layer[3], 1);
digitalWrite(layer[2], 1);
delay(x);
turnEverythingOff();
}
//propeller
void propeller()
{
turnEverythingOff();
int x = 90;
for(int y = 4; y>0; y–)
{
for(int i = 0; i<6; i++)
{
//turn on layer
digitalWrite(layer[y-1], 1);
//a1
turnColumnsOff();
digitalWrite(column[0], 0);
digitalWrite(column[5], 0);
digitalWrite(column[10], 0);
digitalWrite(column[15], 0);
delay(x);
//b1
turnColumnsOff();
digitalWrite(column[4], 0);
digitalWrite(column[5], 0);
digitalWrite(column[10], 0);
digitalWrite(column[11], 0);
delay(x);
//c1
turnColumnsOff();
digitalWrite(column[6], 0);
digitalWrite(column[7], 0);
digitalWrite(column[8], 0);
digitalWrite(column[9], 0);
delay(x);
//d1
turnColumnsOff();
digitalWrite(column[3], 0);
digitalWrite(column[6], 0);
digitalWrite(column[9], 0);
digitalWrite(column[12], 0);
delay(x);
//d2
turnColumnsOff();
digitalWrite(column[2], 0);
digitalWrite(column[6], 0);
digitalWrite(column[9], 0);
digitalWrite(column[13], 0);
delay(x);
//d3
turnColumnsOff();
digitalWrite(column[1], 0);
digitalWrite(column[5], 0);
digitalWrite(column[10], 0);
digitalWrite(column[14], 0);
delay(x);
}
}
//d4
turnColumnsOff();
digitalWrite(column[0], 0);
digitalWrite(column[5], 0);
digitalWrite(column[10], 0);
digitalWrite(column[15], 0);
delay(x);
}
//spiral in and out
void spiralInAndOut()
{
turnEverythingOn();
int x = 60;
for(int i = 0; i<6; i++)
{
//spiral in clockwise
digitalWrite(column[0], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[1], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[2], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[3], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[7], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[11], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[15], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[14], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[13], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[12], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[8], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[4], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[5], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[6], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[10], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[9], 1);
delay(x);
//spiral out counter clockwise
digitalWrite(column[9], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[10], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[6], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[5], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[4], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[8], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[12], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[13], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[14], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[15], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[11], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[7], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[3], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[2], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[1], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[0], 0);
delay(x);
//spiral in counter clock wise
digitalWrite(column[0], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[4], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[8], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[12], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[13], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[14], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[15], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[11], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[7], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[3], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[2], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[1], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[5], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[9], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[10], 1);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[6], 1);
delay(x);
//spiral out clock wise
digitalWrite(column[6], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[10], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[9], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[5], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[1], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[2], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[3], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[7], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[11], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[15], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[14], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[13], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[12], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[8], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[4], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[0], 0);
delay(x);
}
}
//go through all leds one at a time
void goThroughAllLedsOneAtATime()
{
int x = 15;
turnEverythingOff();
for(int y = 0; y<5; y++)
{
//0-3
for(int count = 4; count != 0; count–)
{
digitalWrite(layer[count-1], 1);
for(int i = 0; i<4; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
digitalWrite(layer[count-1], 0);
}
//4-7
for(int count = 0; count < 4; count++)
{
digitalWrite(layer[count], 1);
for(int i = 4; i<8; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
digitalWrite(layer[count], 0);
}
//8-11
for(int count = 4; count != 0; count–)
{
digitalWrite(layer[count-1], 1);
for(int i = 8; i<12; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
digitalWrite(layer[count-1], 0);
}
//12-15
for(int count = 0; count < 4; count++)
{
digitalWrite(layer[count], 1);
for(int i = 12; i<16; i++)
{
digitalWrite(column[i], 0);
delay(x);
digitalWrite(column[i], 1);
delay(x);
}
digitalWrite(layer[count], 0);
}
}
}